Performance Group: Instructional Strategies
All Members of the Instructional Strategies Group:
Principles of Learning
Models of Teaching
(click a member name to view its data)

Excerpt from Chapter 9:

The Skillful Teacher (2008), Chapter 9: Clarity

"A treasury of strategies exists for making ideas and skills clear and accessible to students. This section lays them out in sequential categories: Framing the Big Picture for Students; Getting Ready for Instruction; Presenting Information from a Repertoire of Explanatory Devices; Using Effective Speech; Being Explicit; Making Cognitive Connections; Checking for Understanding; Unscrambling Confusions; Making Students' Thinking Visible; and Summarizing."

Saphier, J., Haley-Speca, M.A., & Gower, R. 2008.The Skillful Teacher: Building Your Teaching Skills, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, Inc.

Question: How do I make concepts and skills clear and accessible to students? (click here to see quiz)
Skills of Clarity
Framing the Learning These are skills which prepare students for the learning to come and both give them the big picture and get their minds active and in gear.
The Big Picture Big Picture skills result in students:
  • Understanding the learning objectives.
  • Seeing what the sequence of events will be.
  • Knowing the big idea surrounding the experience of the day.
  • Understanding why the learning is worthwhile and relevant to them.
  • Understanding the reason the activity they're about to do will lead to the learning they are aiming for.
  • Understanding the criteria for success in the activity.
  • Getting Ready for Instruction These skills:
  • Activate students and current knowledge.
  • Give the teacher pre-assessment data.
  • Anticipate student confusions and misconceptions.
  • Presenting Information These are skills of interactive teaching that are called for when teachers are presenting information, skills and ideas to students.
    Explanatory Devices These are skills and techniques that make ideas clear and accessible to students.
  • Simple Cues
  • Progressive Minimal Cues
  • Highlighting Important Information
  • Translation into simpler Language
  • Analogies
  • Pictures
  • Charts, Whiteboards, Smartboard
  • Document, Camera or Overhead Transparencies
  • Audio and Viideo Recordings
  • Computer Presentation Software
  • Models
  • Mental Imagery
  • Modeling Thinking Aloudvideo
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Speech These skills enable us to match verbal forms to students and to avoid mazes and vagueness.
  • Avoiding "Mazes" or "Vagueness"
  • Matching to Setting and Student Culture
  • Creating Mental Engagement These skills enable us to get students cognitively engaged with instruction.
    Explicitness These skills make crystal clear to students the:
  • Intention of Cues
  • Focus of Questions
  • Necessary Steps in Directions
  • Meaning of References
  • Making Cognitive Connections These skills guide students through the cognitive landscape during instruction by:
  • Showing Resemblance to Student Experience of Something Already Learned
  • Asking Students to Compare and Contrast
  • Extending to Implications and Future Actions
  • Making Transitions Between Ideas
  • Signaling Shift in Activity, Pace or Level
  • Foreshadowing
  • Getting Inside the Head of a Student: (Cognitive Empathy) These skills enable us to find out what effect our intruction is having and make adjustments during teaching.
    Checking for Understandingvideo These skills comprise an extensive repertoire for getting broad and accurate readings during instruction of how well students are understanding and to identify which students do and do not understand.
    Unscrambling Confusionvideo This is a repertoire of skills for dealing with student confusions that goes beyond just explaining the material over again.
    Making Students' Thinking Visiblevideo These invaluable teacher skills result in high levels of student talk, student interaction and deeper understanding while at the same time supporting a climate where it is safe to take risks.
    Consolidating and Anchoring the Learning
    Summarizing These skills form a repertoire of strategies for getting students cognitively active in summarizing their own learning. They can be applied in the middle of lessons as well as at the end. Whenever they are done or whichever strategies are chosen, what we want is students pulling together their learning in their own words. Since many of the summarizing strategies are audible to us or produce visible products (e.g., learning logs) they can also serve the dual purpose of giving us data on student understanding.

    Allington, R. L., and Johnston, P. "What Do We Know About Effective Fourth-Grade Teachers and Their Classrooms?" In C. M. Roller (ed.), Learning to Teach Reading. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 2001.

    Alvarado, A., Elmore, R., and Resnick, L. "High Performance Learning Communities Project: Final Report." Pittsburg, Penn.: Learning Research and Development Center, 2000.

    Anderson, V., and Hidi, S. "Teaching Students to Summarize." Educational Leadership. Dec. 1988-Jan. 1989, pp. 26-28.

    Applebee, A. N., and Langer, J. A. "Discussion-Based Approaches to Developing Understanding: Classroom Instruction and Student Performance in Middle and High School English." American Educational Research Journal, 2003, 40, 685-730.

    Arnaudin, M. W., and Mintzes, J. "The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions." Science and Children, 1986, 23(5), 48-51.

    Ault, C. R., Jr. "Intelligently Wrong: Some Comments on Children's Misconceptions." Science and Children, May 1984, pp. 22-24.

    Ausubel, D. P. Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, 1968.

    Bagley, M. T., and Hess, K. 200 Ways of Using Imagery in the Classroom. Monroe, N.Y.: Trillium Press, 1987.

    Barell, J. Developing More Curious Minds. Alexandria, Va.: ASCD, 2003.

    Barell, J. "You Ask the Wrong Questions!" Educational Leadership, May 1985, pp. 18-23.

    Baroody, A., and Ginsburg, H. "The Effects of Instruction on Children's Understanding of the 'Equals' Sign." Elementary School Journal, 1983, 84(2), pp. 199-212.

    Belgard, M., Rosenshine, B., and Gage, N. L. "The Teacher's Effectiveness in Explaining: Evidence on Its Generality and Correlation with Pupil Ratings and Attention Score." In I. Westbury and A. Bellack (eds.), Research into Classroom Processes. New York: Teachers College Press, 1971.

    Bellon, J. J., Bellon, E. C., and Blank, M. A. Teaching from a Research Knowledge Base: A Development and Renewal Process. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

    Bennett, N., and Desforges, C. "Matching Classroom Tasks to Students' Attainments." Elementary School Journal, 1988, 88, 221-234.

    Black, H., and Black, S. Organizing Thinking, Book II. Graphic Organizers. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Midwest Publications, 1990.

    Bloom, B. S., and Krathwohl, D. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goal. New York: Longmans, 1956.

    Borko, H., and Putnam, P. T. "Expanding a Teacher's Knowledge Base." In T. Guskey and M. Huberman (eds.), Professional Development in Education: New Paradigms and Practices. New York: Teachers College Press, 1995.

    Bragstad, B. J., and Stumpf, S. M. "How a Map Is Born." In A Guidebook for Teaching Study Skills and Motivation. Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 1982.

    Brophy, J. "Teacher Effects Research and Teacher Quality." Journal of Classroom Interaction, 1986-1987, 22, 14-23.

    Brophy, J. "Teacher Praise: A Functional Analysis." Review of Educational Research, 1981, 51, 5-32.

    Brophy, J. E. "How Teachers Influence What Is Taught and Learned in Classrooms." Elementary School Journal, 1982, 83, 1-13.

    Bulgren, J. "Teaching Concepts: Concept Diagramming and the Concept of Teaching Routine." Lawrence: Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities, University of Kansas, Aug. 1991.

    Bulgren J., Deshler, D., Schumaker, J., and Lenz, B. "The Use and Effectiveness of Analogical Instruction in Diverse Secondary Content Classrooms." Journal of Educational Psychology, 2000, 92(3), pp. 426-441.

    Burton, G. M. "Writing as a Way of Knowing in a Mathematics Education Class." Arithmetic Teacher, Dec. 1985, pp. 40-44.

    Bush, A. J., Kennedy, J. J., and Cruickshank, D. R. "An Empirical Investigation of Teacher Clarity." Journal of Teacher Education, 1977, 28, 53-58.

    Carnine, D. "New Research on the Brain: Implications for Instruction." Phi Delta Kappan, Jan. 1990, pp. 372-377.

    Carpenter, T. P., and others. "Using Knowledge of Children's Mathematics Thinking in Classroom Teaching: An Experimental Study." American Educational Research Journal, 1989, 26, 499-431.

    Cazden, D. B. "Revealing and Telling: The Socialization of Attention in Learning to Read and Write." Educational Psychology, 1992, 12, 302-313.

    Clarke, J. H. Patterns of Thinking. Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon, 1990.

    Coffman, J., and Tanis, D. O. "Don't Say Particle, Say People." Science Teacher, Nov. 1990, pp. 27-29.

    Cooper, C. "Different Ways of Being a Teacher: An Ethnographic Study of College Instructors' Academic and Social Roles in the Classroom." Journal of Classroom Interaction, 1980, 16(2), 27-36.

    Costa, A. Teaching for Intelligent Behavior. Orangevale, Calif.: Search Models Unlimited, 1985.

    Costa, A., and Kallick, B. Activating and Engaging Habits of Mind. Alexandria, Va.: ASCD, 2000. Reprinted with permission.

    Cotton, K. Classroom Questioning. Portland, Ore: NW Regional Education Laboratory, 1988.

    Cotton, K. "The Schooling Practices That Matter Most." Portland, Ore: NW Regional Education Laboratory, 2000. torage_01/0000000b/80/27/d3/bc.pdf.

    Crooks, T. "The Impact of Classroom Evaluation Practices on Students." Review of Educational Research

    D&Angelo, K. "Precise Writing: Promoting Vocabulary Development and Comprehension." Journal of Reading, Mar. 1983, pp. 534-539.

    Dank, M. Albert Einstein. New York: Franklin Watts, 1983.

    Davey, B. "Think Aloud"Modeling the Cognitive Processes of Reading Comprehension." Journal of Reading, Oct. 1983, pp. 44-47.

    Dillon, J. T. "The Remedial Status of Student Questioning." Curriculum Studies, 1988, 20(3), 197-210.

    Dillon, J. T. "Duration of Response to Teacher Questions and Statements." Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1981, 6, 1-11.

    Dishner, E. K., and others. "Attending to Text Structure: A Comprehension Strategy." Reading in the Content Areas: Improving Classroom Instruction. Dubuque, Ia.: Kendall/Hunt, 1992.

    Doyle, W. "Stalking the Mythical Student." Elementary School Journal, 1982, 82, 529-538.

    Draper, S. W., and Brown, M. I. "Increasing Interactivity in Lectures Using an Electronic Voting System." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 2004, 20(2), 81-94.

    Driver, R., Guesne, E., and Tiberghien, A. Children's Ideas in Science. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985.

    Duckworth, E. "Understanding Children's Understanding." Unpublished paper, Feb. 1981.

    Duffy, G. G., and Roehler, L. R. "Improving Reading Instruction Through the Use of Responsive Elaboration." Reading Teacher, 1987, 40(6), 14-19.

    Duffy, G., Roehler, L. R., and Rackliffe, G. "How Teachers' Instructional Talk Influences Students" Understanding of Lesson Content." Elementary School Journal, 1986, 87(1), 1986, 3-16.

    Dunkin, M. J., and Biddle, B. J. The Study of Teaching. New York: Holt, 1974.Eaton, J. "Research on Teaching." Educational Leadership, Oct. 1982, pp. 75-76.

    Easley, J.A., and Zwoyer, R. "Teaching by Listening: Toward a New Day in Math Classes." Contemporary Education, 1975, 57(1), 19-25.

    Eaton, J. F., Anderson, C. W., and Smith, E. L. "Students' Misconceptions Interfere with Science Learning: Case Studies of Fifth-Grade Students." Elementary School Journal, 1984, 84, 365-379.

    Eeds, M., and Wells, D. "Grand Conversations: An Exploration of Meaning Construction on Literature Study Groups." Research in the Teaching of English, 1989, 23(1), 4-29.

    Edwards, J., and Marland, P. "Student Thinking in a Secondary Biology Classroom." Research in Science Education, 1982, 12, 32-41.

    Escondido School District. Mind's Eye. Escondido, Calif.: Board of Education, 1979.

    Eylon, B., and Linn, M. C. "Learning and Instruction: An Examination of Four Research Perspectives in Science Education." Review of Educational Research, 1988, 58, 251- 301.

    Fisher, D. Instructional Design: The Taxonomy Table. Corvallis: Oregon State University, 2005. axonomy/.

    Fogarty R. The Mindful School: How to Teach for Metacognitive. Palatine, Ill.: IRI/Skylight, 1994.

    Fogarty, R., and Bellanca, J. Patterns for Thinking-Patterns for. Palatine, Ill.: IRI Group, 1993.

    Fortune, J. C., Gage, N. L., and Shute, R. E. "The Generalitythe Ability to Explain." Paper presented at the AERA, Chicago, 1966.

    Friedrich, G. W., Galvin, K. M., and Book, C. L. Growing: Classroom Communication. Columbus, Ohio:Merrill, 1976.

    Gage, N. L. "Exploration of Teachers' Effectiveness in." Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University CenterResearch and Development in Teaching, 1961. (ED147)

    Gagne, R. M. The Essentials of Learning for Instruction. (4th.) Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden Press, 1992.

    Gall, M. D., and others. "Effects of Questioning TechniquesRecitation in Student Learning." American EducationalJournal, 1978, 15, 175-199.

    Galyean, B.-C. "Guided Imagery in the Curriculum." Educational, Mar. 1983, pp. 54-58.

    Galyean, B.-C. Mind Sight, Learning Through Imaging. Berkeley,.: Zephyr Press, 1988.

    Garfield, C. "Peak Performers." New York: Random House,.

    Geller, L. G. "Conversations in Kindergarten." Science and, Apr. 1985, pp. 30-32.

    Ghatala, E. S., Levin, J., Pressley, M., and Locico, M. "TrainingStrategy-Monitoring in Children." AmericanResearch Journal, 1985, 22, 199-215.

    Goleman, D. "Cues Are Easy to Misinterpret." New York Times,. 17, 1991.

    Good, T. L., and Brophy, J. E. Looking in Classrooms. (8th ed.)York: HarperCollins, 2000.

    Graham, S. "Teacher Feelings and Student Thoughts: AnApproach to Affect in the Classroom." ElementaryJournal, 85(1), 1984, 91-104.

    Gregg, C. I. "Teachers Also Must Learn." Harvard Educational, 10, 1940, 30-47.

    Gregorc, A. "Learning/Teaching Styles: Potent Faces Behind." Educational Leadership, Jan. 1979, pp. 234-236.

    Gregorc, A., and Butler, K. A. "Learning Is a Matter of Style."Education Journal, 1984, 59(3), 27-29.

    Hahn, A. L., and Gardner, R. "Synthesis of Research on Students'to Summarize Text." Educational Leadership,. 1985, pp. 52-55.

    Hammond, D. Wordsplash. Rochester, Mich.: Oakland University,.

    Harris, P., and Swick, K. "Improving Teacher Communications."House, 1985, 59, 13-15.

    Heimlich, J. E., and Pittelman, S. D. Semantic Mapping: Classroom. Newark, Del.: International Reading, 1986.

    Herron, J. D. 'Piaget in the Classroom: Expanding What 'Good' Students Cannot Understand." Journal of Chemical, 1975, 52(2), 146-150.

    Hess, K. K. Enhancing Writing Through Imagery. New York: Trillium, 1987.

    Hesse, J. "From Naive to Knowledgeable." Science Teacher,. 1989, pp. 55-58.

    Hiller, J. H., Fisher, G. A., and Kaess, W. A. "A Computerof Verbal Characteristics of Effective Classroom." American Educational Research Journal, , 6, 661-675

    Hines, C. V., Cruickshank, D. R., and Kennedy, J. J. "Teacherand Its Relationship to Student Achievement and." American Educational Research Journal, 1985, , 87-99.

    Houghton, R. S. "Thinking Skills Model Categories, Trigger, and Key Words Chart." In C. Caram and P.(eds.), "Inviting Student Engagement With Questioning."Delta Pi Record, Fall 2005, pp. 19-23.

    Hunter, M. Mastery Teaching. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin, 2004.

    Hyerle, D. Designs for Thinking Connectively. Lyme, N.H.:for Thinking, 1990.

    Institute for Research on Teaching. "Kids Have Misconceptions."Quarterly, Fall 1981, p. 4.

    Institute for Research on Teaching. "Explicitness Is Key toInstruction." Communication Quarterly,-Spring 1984.

    Johnson, D. R. Every Minute Counts: Making Your Math Class. Palo Alto, Calif.: Dale Seymour Publications, 1982.

    Johnston, P. "Teaching Students to Apply Strategies ThatReading Comprehension." Elementary School Journal, , 85, 635-645.

    Joos, M. The Five Clocks. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1967.

    Kallison, J. M. Jr. "Effects of Lesson Organization on Achievement."Educational Research Journal, 1986, 23,-347.

    Lamott, A. "In Steinbeck Country, We Said No to Closing the." Boston Globe, June 4, 2005.://

    Land, M. L., and Smith, L. R. "The Effect of Low InferenceClarity Inhibitors on Student Achievement." JournalTeacher Education, 1979, 30(3), 55-57.

    Lantieri, L. (ed.). Schools with Spirit. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.

    Lester, J. B. "Establishing a Community of Mathematics." In D. Schifter (ed.), What's Happening in Math? New York: Teachers College Press, 1996. Reprintedpermission of Copyright Clearance Center.

    Liedtke, W. "Diagnosis in Mathematics: The Advantages of an." Arithmetic Teacher, Nov. 1988, pp. 26-29.

    Lipman, M. Philosophy in the Classroom. Philadelphia: TemplePress, 1980.

    Lopez, J. A., and Powell, A. B. "Writing as a Vehicle to Learn: A Case Study." Paper presented at the Seventy-Annual Meeting of the Mathematical AssociationAmerica, Jan. 1988.

    Lyons, B. A. "Peer-Led Literature Discussion Groups: Anof Recent Literature." 1996.

    Margulies, N. Mapping Inner Space: Learning and TeachingMapping. Tucson, Ariz.: Zephyr Press, 1991.

    Marino, J. L., Gould, S., and Haas, L. W. "The Effects of Writinga Prereading Activity on Delayed Recall of Narrative." Elementary School Journal, 1985, 86, 199-205.

    Martin, J. Explaining, Understanding and Teaching. New York:Hill, 1970.

    Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., and Pollock, J. E. ClassroomThat Works: Research-Based Strategies for IncreasingAchievement. Alexandria, Va.: ASCD, 2001.

    Marx, A., Fuhrer, U., and Hartig, T. "Effects of ClassroomArrangements on Children's Question-Asking."Environments Research, 1999, 2, 249-263.

    Marx, R. W., and Walsh, J. "Learning from Academic Tasks."School Journal, 1988, 88, 207-219.

    McCaleb, J. L., and White, J. A. "Critical Dimensions in EvaluatingClarity." Journal of Classroom Interaction,, 15, 27-30.

    McCarthy, B. The 4Mat Workbook: Guided Practice in 4Mat LessonUnit Planning. Manchester, U.K.: Excel, 1987.

    McCarthy, B., and McCarthy, D. Teaching Around the 4MAT: Designing Instruction for Diverse Learners with DiverseStyles. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, 2005.

    McGee, L. M., and Richgels, D. J. "Teaching Expository Textto Elementary Students." Reading Teacher, 1986,, 739-748.

    McLean, T. J. "U. of Arizona `Humanizes' Classes with Computers."and Sense, Sept. 1991.

    McNeill, J. D. Reading Comprehension: New Directions for Classroom. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1984.

    Mehan, H. "Accomplishing Classroom Lessons." In S. V.(ed.), Language Use and School Performance. Orlando,.: Academic Press, 1974.

    Mett, C. L. "Writing as a Learning Device in Calculus." Mathematics, Oct. 1987, pp. 534-537.

    Mills, S. R., Rice, C. T., Beliner, D. C., and Rosseau, E. W. "The Correspondence Between Teacher Questions andAnswers in Classroom Discourse." Journal ofEducation, 1980, 48, 194-204.

    Moll, L. C. "Through the Mediation of Others: Vygotskianon Teaching." In V. Richardson (ed.), HandbookResearch on Teaching. (4th ed.) Washington, D.C.: AmericanResearch Association, 2001.

    Munk, T. "Thinking Skills Model Categories, Trigger Questions,Key Words Chart." In C. Caram and P. Davis (eds.), "Inviting Student Engagement With Questioning."Delta Pi Record, Fall 2005, 19-23.

    Murdock, M. Spinning Inward. Boston: Shambhala, 1987.

    Murray, H. G. "Effective Teaching Behaviors in the College." In J. Smart (ed.), Higher Education: HandbookTheory and Research. New York: Agathon Press, 1991.

    Novak, J. D. "Clarify with Concept Maps: A Tool for StudentsTeachers Alike." Science Teacher, 1991, 58(7), 45-49.

    Novak, J. D., and Gowin, D. B. Learning How to Learn. Cambridge:University Press, 1984.

    Nuthall, G. "The Cultural Myths and Realities of Classroomand Learning: A Personal Journey." Teachers College, 2005, 107, 895-934.

    Nystrand, M. Opening Dialogue: Understanding the Dynamics ofand Learning in the English Classroom. New York:College Press, 1997.

    Ogle, D. M. "K-W-L: A Teaching Model That Develops Activeof Expository Text." Reading Teacher, Feb. 1986,. 564-570.

    Ormrod, J. E. Human Learning. (4th ed.) Upper Saddle River,.J.: Pearson Education, 2004.

    Osborne, R., and Freyberg, P. Learning in Science: The ImplicationsChildren's Science. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heineman,.

    Palincsar, A., and Brown, A. "When the Student Becomes the." Harvard Education Letter, 1986, 11(2), 5-6.

    Parsons, C. "Grading Teachers for Quality." Christian Science, Oct. 26, 1981, p. B1.

    Payne, R. A Framework for Understanding Poverty. (rev. ed.), Tex.: aha! Process, Inc., 2005.

    Perkins, D. Making Thinking Visible. Seattle, Wash.: New HorizonsLearning, 2003.

    Peterson, P., and Swing, S. "Beyond Time on Task: Students'of Their Thought Processes During Classroom." Elementary School Journal, 1982, 82, 481-491.with permission from University of Chicago.

    Peterson, P., Swing, S., Stark, K., and Waas, G. "Students'and Time on Task During Mathematics." American Educational Research Journal, 1984,, 487-515.

    Pradl, G. M., and Mayher, J. S. "Reinvigorating LearningWriting." Educational Leadership, Feb. 1985, pp. 2-8.

    Pressley, G. M. "Imagery and Children's Learning: PuttingPicture in Developmental Perspective." Review of Educational, 1977, 47, 585-622.

    Pressley, G. M. "Mental Imagery Helps Eight-Year OldsWhat They Read." Journal of Educational Psychology,, 68, 355-359.

    Raths, J. "Enhancing Understanding Through Debriefing."Leadership, Oct. 1987, pp. 22-27.

    Reinhart, S. C. "Never Say Anything a Kid Can Say." Mathematicsin Middle School, 2000, 5, 478.

    Ritchart, R. Intellectual Character. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,.

    Ritchart, R., Palmer, P., Church, M., and Tishman, S. "Thinking: Establishing Patterns for Thinking in the." Paper presented at AERA Conference, San, Apr. 2006.

    Rohrkemper, M. M., and Bershon, B. "Elementary School' Report of the Causes and Effects of Problemin Mathematics." Elementary School Journal, 1984,, 127-147.

    Rose, L. Picture This: Teaching Reading Through Visualization., Ariz.: Zephyr Press, 1989.

    Rosenshine, B., and Stevens, R. "Teaching Functions." In M.(ed.), Handbook of Research. New York: Macmillan,.

    Rosenshine, B., and Furst, N. "The Use of Direct ObservationStudy Teaching." In R. M. Travers (ed.), Second HandbookResearch on Teaching. Skokie, Ill.: Rand McNally,.

    Roth, K. J., Anderson, C. W., and Smith, E. L. "Curriculum, Teacher Talk and Student Learning: Case StudiesFifth Grade Science Teaching." Paper presented atannual meeting of the National Reading Conference,on Teacher Explanatory Talk, Austin, Tex.,. 1983.

    Roth, W. M. "Map Your Way to a Better Lab." Science Teacher,. 1990, pp. 31-34.

    Rowe, M. B. "Getting Chemistry off the Killer Course List,"of Chemical Education, 1983, 60, 954-956.

    Sagan, C. Cosmos. New York: Random House, 1980, p. 199.

    Sanders, A. "Learning Logs: A Communication Strategy forSubject Areas." Educational Leadership, Feb. 1985, p. 7.

    Saphier, J., and Haley, M. Activators: Activity Structures toStudent Thinking Before Instruction. Acton, Mass.:for Better Teaching, 1993.

    Shifter, D (ed.). What's Happening in Math Class? New York:College Press, 1996.

    Sinatra, R. "Semantic Mapping: A Thinking Strategy forReading and Writing Development: Parts I and." Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving. Mahwah, N.J.:, 1990.

    Singer, H. "Teaching Active Comprehension." Reading, May 1978, pp. 904-907.

    Smith, L., and Land, M. "Low-Inference Verbal Behaviorsto Teacher Clarity." Journal of Classroom Interactions,, 17(1), 37-42.

    Tasker, R. "Children's Views and Classroom Experience."Science Teachers' Journal, 1981, 27(3), 33-37.

    Tobin, K. "Wait-Time in Science-Necessary but Insufficient."presented at the annual meeting of theAssociation for Research in Science Teaching,Lick Springs, Ind., Apr. 1985.

    Whisler, J. S., and Marzano, R. J. Dare to Imagine: An's Technology. Aurora, Colo.: Mid-ContinentEducational Laboratory, 1988.

    Wiggins, G., and McTighe, J. Understanding by Design. Alexandria,.: ASCD, 2005.

    Winne, P. H. "Steps Toward Promoting Cognitive Achievements."School Journal, 1985, 85, 673-693.

    Winne, P. H., and Marx, R. W. "Students' and Teachers'of Thinking Processes for Classroom Learning."School Journal, 1982, 82, 492-518.