Performance Group: Instructional Strategies
All Members of the Instructional Strategies Group:
Principles of Learning
Models of Teaching
(click a member name to view its data)

Excerpt from Chapter 11:

The Skillful Teacher (2008), Chapter 11: Models of Teaching

"For students of teaching, few other efforts are as rewarding and as challenging as learning new models of teaching. Even the most mature and sophisticated of professionals can add to their repertoires and their power to reach a broader range of students. It is an ideal area of study for advanced professionals between their fifth and fifteenth year of teaching who wish to teach thinking skills as well as content."

Saphier, J., Haley-Speca, M.A., & Gower, R. 2008.The Skillful Teacher: Building Your Teaching Skills, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, Inc.

Question: How do I create learning experiences that develop the mind as well as the content? (click here to see quiz)
Skills of Models of Teaching
A Model of Teaching is a design specification for lessons that teach academic content, but in a way that also teaches something particular about a thinking skill. Dozens of other models like those mentioned below exist, each with their own behaviors and steps. But none are more effective for academic learning - just different. This is a fascinating area of the knowledge base for experienced and capable teachers who want to stretch their capacity.
Concept Attainment teaches attributional thinking about concepts (Jerome Bruner)
Inductive Teaching teaches inferencing skills. (Hilda Taba)
Synectics teaches creativity and metaphorical thinking. (William Gordon)
Inquiry Training teaches students how to ask good questions in puzzling situations. (Richard Suchman)
Group Investigation teaches the skills for effective functioning in a group. (Herbert Thelen)
The Jurisprudential Model teaches how to understand one's assumptions and make a persuasive case. (Donald Oliver and Richard Shaver)

Group Investigation Model Major theorists: Herbert Thelen, John Dewey

Dewey, J. Democracy and Education. New York: Macmillan, 1916

Thelen, H. Education and the Human Quest. New York: Harper-Collins, 1960.

Thelen, H. Dynamics of Groups at Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.

Jurisprudential Model Major theorists: Donald Oliver, James P. Shaver

Oliver, D., and Shaver, J. P. Teaching Public Issues in High School. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.

Social Inquiry Model Major theorists: Benjamin Cox, Byron Massialas

Massialas, B., and Cox, B. Inquiry in Social Studies. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

Laboratory Method Model (T-Group) Major theorist: National Training Laboratory, Bethel, Maine; Leland P. Bradford

Bany, M., and Johnson, L. V. Classroom Group Behavior: Group Dynamics in Education. New York: Macmillan, 1964.

Bennis, W. G., Benne, K. D., and Chin, R. (eds.). The Planning of Change: Readings in the Applied Behavioral Sciences. New York: Holt, 1964.

Bradford, L. P. (ed.). Human Forces in Teaching and Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Training Laboratory, National Association, 1961.

Bradford, L. P., Gibb, J. R., and Benne, K. D. T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 1964.

Human Relations Laboratory Training Student Notebook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Education, 1961.

Concept Attainment Model Major theorist: Jerome Bruner

Bruner, J., Goodnow, J. J., and Austin, G. A. A Study of Thinking. New York: Science Editions, 1957.

Inductive Model Major theorist: Hilda Taba

Taba, H. Teaching Strategies and Cognitive Functioning in Elementary School Children. San Francisco: San Francisco State College, 1971.

Taba, H. Teacher's Handbook for Elementary Social Studies. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1967

Inquiry Training Model Major theorist: Richard Suchman

Suchman, J. R. The Elementary School Training Program in Scientific Inquiry. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1962.

Suchman, J. R. "A Model for the Analysis of Inquiry." In H. J. Klausmeier and C. W. Harris (eds.), Analysis of Concept Learning. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press, 1966.

Suchman, J. R. Inquiry Box: Teacher's Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1967.

Suchman, J. R. Inquiry Development Program: Developing Inquiry. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1966.

Biological Science Inquiry Model Major theorists: Joseph J. Schwab, Jerome Bruner (curriculum reform movement)

Schwab, J. J. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Supervisor. Biology Teachers' Handbook. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 1965.

Advanced Organizer Model Major theorist: David Ausubel

Ausubel, D. P. The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1963.

Ausubel, D. P. Learning Theory and Classroom Practice. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1967.

Bruner, J. Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Developmental Model Major theorists: Jean Piaget, Irving Sigel, Edmund Sullivan

Furth, H. G. Piaget and Knowledge. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1969.

Kohlberg, L. "Moral Education in the School." School Review, 1966, 74, 1-30.

Piaget, J. The Origins of Intelligence in Children. New York: International University Press, 1952.

Sigel, I. E. "The Piagetian System and the World of Education." In D. Elkind and J. Flavell (eds.), Studies in Cognitive Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Nondirective Teaching Model Major theorist: Carl Rogers

Rogers, C. R. Client Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.

Rogers, C. R. Freedom to Learn. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1969.

Classroom Meeting Model Major theorist: William Glasser

Glasser, W. Reality Therapy. New York: HarperCollins, 1965.

Glasser, W. Schools Without Failure. New York: HarperCollins, 1969.

Synectics Model Major theorist: William Gordon

Gordon, W. J. Synectics. New York: HarperCollins, 1961

Gordon, W. J. The Metaphorical Way of Learning and Knowing. Cambridge, Mass.: Synectics Educational Press, 1970.

Awareness Training Model Major theorists: William Schutz, Fritz Perls

Brown, G. Human Teaching for Human Learning. New York: Viking Press, 1971.

Schutz, W. J. FIRO: A Three Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior. New York: Holt, 1958.

Schutz, W. J. Expanding Human Awareness. New York: Grove Press, 1967.

Operant Conditioning Major theorist: B. F. Skinner

Schramm, W. Programmed Instruction: Today and Tomorrow. New York: Fund for the Advancement of Education, 1962.

Skinner, B. F. The Science of Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan, 1956.

Skinner, B. F. Verbal Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.

Taber, J., R. Glaser, and H. S. Halmuth. Learning and Programmed Instruction. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1965.

Joyce, B., Calhoun, E., and Hopkins, D. Models of Learning: Tools for Teaching. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2002.

Joyce, B., and Showers, B. The Evolution of Peer Coaching: Educational Leadership, 1986, 53(6), 12-16.

Joyce, B., and Weil, M. Models of Teaching. (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1986.

Joyce, B., Weil, M., and Calhoun, E. Models of Teaching. (7th ed.) Upper Saddle River, N.J.; Prentice Hall, 2003.